Fetal and Neonatal Cardiology

An abnormal appearing heart, abnormal heart rate or arrhythmia on routine screening ultrasound, Chromosomal abnormality which is also called as Aneuploidy, It also increases nuchal translucency thickness at first trimester evaluation with noncardiac fetal structural abnormalities, Fluid accumulation in the fetus and a two-vessel umbilical cord these conditions are the main cause from Fetal Cardiology. Whereas in Neonatal cardiology, physiology differs from adult cardiology. During birth, the neonatal myocyte is not fully developed and making the heart is less able to respond to volume loading with an increased cardiac output. These conditions are caused due to the higher proportion of fibrous tissue to contractile tissue, as compared to that of an adult. As a reason of heart’s immature T-tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum, the neonate relies heavily on calcium flux through the sarcolemma for myocyte function. And this myocyte contraction is highly dependent on ionized plasma calcium.

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